Back to previouse page Sevastopol history : City building (1783-1853)


        With years grew and the base of fleet, dews and city was improved. The truth, occured it slowly: had an effect techical and economic backwardness the yoke of serfdom and feudal Russia, small population of Sevastopol. And nevertheless was made much, especially in second the quarters XIX centuries, when fleet were headed by admiral M. P. Lazarev, scientist - geographer and seafarer. With him Sevastopol has become not only by first class sea fortress, but also largest city of Crimea. He was picturesquely stretched on coast, of convenient, the bays which have divided him on three parts : urban and ship, located on a southern coast of Large (Northern) Bays, and Northern - on opposite its coast. The urban and Ship parties in turn are divided by a Southern bay. On the official data, in 1844 in Sevastopol there were 41155 inhabitants. The large part of the population was the militarians; the civilians consist of families of military men, officials, handicraftsmen - tailors, shoemakers, tinmans - and the fine dealers. How Sevastopol that far period is looked ? To present it the figures of that time, description help the contemporaries. On three hills divided by deep beams, there were houses, constructed in basic from white inkerman's stone. The centre was placed around of a Southern hill (here and now ring of central streets and squares) lays. Main was Ekaterinenskaya street, begin from Ekaterinenskaya square (nowadays - Nahimov square). In this street lived the general governor, urban head, rich merchants, located church, noble damsel boarding, ship's boys school,naval barraks and working crews. Parade of Black sea fleet shieps On Large Sea there were houses of sea officers and officials, army and naval commissars. It were small, accurate mansions with front gardens, making on the travellers pleasant impression. At once behind the comfortable main streets (in area of present Historical parkway, central market) the beggars side-street, richly populated by labour folk. One of them was at top of a Southern hill, Nicknamed " ridge of lawlessness ". Hovels of the poor men were moulded here richly and chaotically (the building went without the plan and the sanctions), narrowness and the deprivations derivated illnesses, drunkenness. Under the instruction of M. P. Lazarev the plan of new building was made this area of city so that beautiful buildings, parkways, the monuments were visible on the part of the sea. Southern and ship's bays were military harbour of Sevastopol, in Artillery stood merchant's court. On coast of other bays - Streleckaya, and Kazachya - any structures were not cane. Sevastopol admiralty The ships were under construction and were under repair in admiralty, which was on the southwest party of a Southern bay. Here were build dry docks, considered in that time by top of engineering art. Strenghtenings a black sea fortress were constantly improved. In 30-40- years on both to the parties of a Large bay the stone coastal casemating type batteries were constructed - Konstantinovskaya , Mihaylovskaya, Aleksandrovskaya, Nikolaevskaya and Pavlovskaya. Two of them - Konstantinovskaya and Mihaylovskaya - keep intact up to our days, by becoming an integral part of Sevastopol road. Mihail Petrovich Lazarev foresight cared of the staff naval commanders. It has brought up remarkable pleiad of the schoolboys and fellow-fighters, becoming subsequently outstanding, by the admirals - V. A. Kornilov, P. S. Nahimov, V. I. Istomin. By their efforts the black Sea fleet was prepared to heavy to tests of Crimean war.