||Sevastopol revolt of 1830|
The revolt in Sevastopol in 1830, as well as "revolts" in a number of other cities sparked in those years, was detonating of anger, accumulating in broad masses, to indignation, spontaneous protest against a cruel Nikolaev mode in Russia. The Sevastopol revolt in June, 1830 name still "woman's revolt" or "pestilential revolt". In past many epidemic illnesses, including cholera, named as a plague. The cholera diseases dived into Russia, as a rule, from Iran. In 1823 of flash them were noted on this "path": at first in Transcaucasia, then - in Astrakhan. In 1829 a cholera again have brought through the Russian-Iranian margin in the same regions. The flashes of epidemic took place in a troops on Caucasus, then in Bessarabia. In that time Russia led wars just on Caucasus, Balkan and in Transcaucasia. From the Sevastopol raid the ships set off to places of act of war with equipment and food, and were reset, supplying the refugees and prisoners of war. There was a substantial threat of drift of epidemic in seaside cities of Russia. The government has entered a number of a preventive measures and has placed well the Black Sea coast quarantine. In May, 1828 under the command of the governor Novorossia m. Seconds. Voroncov on 30 versts around of Sevastopol the troops respected a quarantine link. But it, however, was not by encumbrance for departure and entrance of the population through outposts in a port, as in city of cases of disease by a cholera was not supervised.
A household activities youngish cities was still badly arranged. The handicraftsmen, fishermen, ferrymans, loaders, families of the married and retired sailors, sailor's widows lived in settlements Shipboard, Artillery, Gipsy and on "Spine of lawlessness" (Central urban hill) in insanitary conditions. On the Shipboard side the great many of houses was the caves which have been cut down in an abrupt decline of soft fossil rock, three sides constituted which one rocks and only one, fronting, was folded from stone sawed here. In hovels of the poor men "intimately, damp, it is cold and to be warmed there is nothing". The inhabitants of settlements were engaged predominantly in fisheries, wherrying and urban carrying field, day operations. The woman - day operation in city and suburban manors, farms, kitchen gardens, gardens. Considerable help for some was the cultivation of the cows and buggies.
June 17, 1829 in connection with some (as was clarified later, catarrhal) the diseases injected more strict quarantine. Though within more than two months after that in Sevastopol there was no suspicious disease (only on August 23 on one of the ships gone in Sevastopol, four sailors have died, and, as the shipboard doctors, at all from a plague have certified, and from other illnesses), the message settlements with city and environs has ceased. Any man desiring to abandon city or to drive in it, should live in quarantine (in an apart retracted place) from 14 about 19 days in strict interment from an external world. The shuttle service of agricultural products, fire wood and hay has ceased. Nobody would like to sit 19 day in quarantine, where it was necessary to feed its horse brought with itself or purchased fodder. The possibility pasture of cattle behind city ceased, and in city was not neither pastures, nor horse-ponds. Remained only sell out cattle or to surrender it to shambles.
For the inhabitants of Sevastopol there have occurred difficult times. Market prices at once have mounted, the gamble began. The urban poor had no possibility to buy expensive products, and also to do any stores at the expense of earnings from agricultural day operations. In poor regions of city the famine has come. The quarantine measures have opened broad spaciousness to arbitrariness of authorities. The merchants, officials, doctors of quarantine made profit of gamble, on bribes with second-hand dealers and peasants on outposts. "In Cancellation of a plague" the specially organized commission was engaged. The cases of disease by a plague were not, but nevertheless all begin to aches by any illness defined in pestilential field-ambulence and observation separation (insulator, where the terms of family of the suspects) set off. For these purposes allocated tumbledown of barracks, old vessels and caves. The sited here people died from chills and famine, as all these premises practically were not heated, for livelihood were issued only water and poor bread.
In circulation both with ill, and with healthy reigned cruelty and inhumanity. The distresses of the indigents were awful. The remedies, tempered on catering services of the inhabitants settlements, were plundered by the heads. Self-interest, greed, the racket, is angry the use by the official position on the part of the quarantine officials tested for to itself many Sevastopolers. The doctors counted presence of a cholera in city rather doubtful. Called December 1, 1829 special medical advice from 15 authoritative doctors has certified, that the high death rate observed in quarantine, was called by barbarous conditions, in which one ill were contained. In middle of January, 1830 the instruction was surrendered to bathe all ill in a bay. Further this way of "treatment" began to apply to all "doubtful", and then and to the healthy inhabitants settlements. The measure this iterated batchly till 3-4 times per one month, down to May. The sharp raise of number catarrhal of diseases with fatal outcome has followed.
Since March 10, 1830 of the quarantine regulations became even stricter:
The universal cordon "was injected so-called". Anybody from the inhabitants had no the right to come out of at home. The city has turn intoed continuous prison. On soil of undereating and famine began to explicate illnesses. Such hard labour mode in period "of a universal cordon" kept 80 days. In the same time the officials and the officers, having conducting characters, easily walked to each other in the visitors, settled parties and balls, there were occupations in all entities. Operations on the ships, in admiralty and in naval crews.
Period of quarantine has effused in Sevastopol of May 27, 1830. The free message in city was repaired, except for the Shipboard side, where a cordon have left for 7 days, i.e. till June 3. The authorities, being covered measures of scrambling with a plague, actually wanted to isolate "the most dangerous and suspicious elements" from the remaining population. In eyes of the heads Shipboard settlement was a nursery "of mutionus spirit", "nest of the rebels". Therefore and on expiration of seven days Shipboard settlement was left on the provision "of a universal cordon" for two weeks with conclusion of a part least of "politically loyal" inhabitants for city in military camp.
All these illegal and oppressing measure, and also famine and the hearings about "deliberate poisoning and infection of the people by illnesses secretly committed by the heads and syns", also have reduced in revolt settlementing of the inhabitants of Sevastopol supported by the sailors and the soldiers of garrison. The quarter overseer Hudeshov one week prior to revolt has noted a grumble and disturbance. The inhabitants Shipboard settlement categorically have refused to leave for camp for city and disperse on houses. Gathered in streets and is open protested against action of authorities. To make them to subordinate, the military governor of city Stolypin in turn routed on Shipboard settlement of the representatives - the captain Kondyrev, general Primo and rear-admiral Skalovskiy, but their arrangements and threats have not reduced to any to results. Under the instruction Skalovskiy the protection Shipboard settlement on May 31 strengthened by two batallions of infantry with two guns under a common command of the colonel Vorobjev. The message settlement with city was purely terminated.
By an occasion for flash of national anger was the case of sudden death the woman having having dug on a neck. The hospital attendants - mortuses (faces hired from the criminals for delivery in special premises died and for reconduction ill) were suspected of her death. The grumble turning soon into universal perturbation has begun. Dissatisfied has headed a part of the inhabitants Shipboard settlement. June 1 noted "disposition to rebelion" and in some other parts of city, specially in Artillery settlement and on "Spine of lawlessness". Considering, that is not enough of forces for a use of weapons, Stolypin was limited to arrangements and threats. He has decided to bear on religious feelings settlementer. For "admonition" of the inhabitants Shipboard settlement was directional priest Sofroniy Gavrilon. He invoked the people to obey the heads and to discharge quarantine measures. The sermon Sofroniy has not reached the purpose.
In Shipboard settlement the vigorous preparation for revolt began. Have scheduled, whom and in what houses to search guilty of curbs to. The inhabitants have staged guard protection to render rebuff to a government troops. The armed groups were established, their training to military business was conducted. 3 groups in total were derivated, them headed naval crew Timofey Ivanov, ferryman Kondratiy Shkuropelov and boatswain 34 naval crew Peter Piskarev. Training of the MEN and organization guard were entrusted to the boatswain's helper Kuzmin, which one used confidence of the inhabitants. The evening of June 3 on city placed a troops TO NOT ADMIT junction of "rebels", to the house of the governor the guard from 52 men is assigned. The amplification of guard called among the inhabitants "Spine of lawlessness" fear to expose to a new cordon. The groups of the inhabitants "Spine" and Artillery settlements, sailors of naval and working crews gathered in streets to express the protest against prolongation of quarantine limitations.
As a signal to revolt the alarm with cathedral's belfry should serve. It was heard in the evening of June 3, 1830 by all city. The inhabitants Shipboard settlement, predominantly wife of the sailors, send from the houses, have beaten by rockss two mortuses and official, have locked syns in one of scraps. Come in settlemens the officer attempted to coax the inhabitants to return in the houses or to be pointed to camp behind city. But settlers resolutely have refused to execute will of the heads. Mutineers with shouts "hurrah!" were pointed to the house of the military governor, to admiralty and catheral's church. The demands mutineers were encompass byed to a cancellation of quarantine both punishment of the hated officials and officers. The seamen, who have adjoined revolt, and soldiers protested against engraved-on-steming of a mode in fleet in army. The principals of revolt - Timofey Ivanov, Kondratiy Shkuronelov, Peter Piskarev, sergeant-major Peter Shukin, mechanic Matvey Nightingales, petty bourgeois Yakov Popkov and others - have constituted something like a military council. Advice has affirmed the list of head faces. Above which one the people's court should be committed. Fissile involvement in revolt have received workmans of 17 and 18 working crews. They first send па a street of June 3 about 8 o'clock in the evening and have divided the lock on capstans of admiralty, on interrogation which one the crews before were built in front for protrusion against mutineers. From houses of the governor there was a general Primo "to coax" the people. But him did not begin to listen, have thwarted from him epaulettes, have forced to be salvaged by running away. Then mutineers have rushed into the house of the governor, have found Stolypin, inferred on a street, where have killed by bludgeons and rockss. After that mutineers were pointed to barracks of naval crews. At their appearance the sailors 29-th, 38-th and 39-th naval crews and workmans of 16 working crew, having armed guns, have adjoined to mutineers.
The ground mass of the people was set in the direction of Shipboard settlements. Other part mutineers, former on "Spine of lawlessness", has caught disappearing rear-admiral Skalovskiy. From him have thwarted epoulettes, lead to church, requiring the receipt on absence of a plague in city. However admiral was possible managed in a missing caret the soldier of the Oryol batallion, where lay the commander of a town garrison Turchaninov and other officers. The armed conflict between mutineers and soldiers has not taken place. The caret has expelled in the direction of commandant's office, and mutineers transmit up on Ekaterininskaya street to the house of priest Sofroniy Gavrilon. Of him the mutineers have demanded a subscription that in city of a plague is not present and was not. Sofroniy has fulfilled this demand. The same kind of a subscription were taken for a city head Nosov, commander of a town garrison of the general Turchaninov and rear-admiral Skalovskiy, and also for several large merchants. Produced these receipts to salvage the life. And mutineers took them to have intellectual acquitting of punishment above the one who has invented a plague and made profit of imaginary epidemic. On Shipboard settlements there was a collision between a troops and mutineers. Mutineers did not engage in combat up to the approach of the help on the part of cities. In an imperial troops under a command of the colonel Vorobjev there were grenadian company Eleckiy of an infantry regiment, 2 guns with 14 gunners of a 5-th of maritime artillery crew and 32 men of cover at guns. When on the part of cities the reinforcement has come and mutineers attacked a troops, it was ordered to the soldiers to shoot, the part the soldier has shot up, gunner has thrown a shining wick on ground. Sparrows was crushed in place, the officers with a part of the ordinaries and gunners are taken in a film. The squads mutineers bypassed flats of faces, brought in in the lists, and, if not found sought, smash up the home.
42 flats of the admirals, generals, officers, merchants, officials, crashed some man in total were routed. At three hours the city was completely captured by mutineers. About five days Sevastopol lay in arms of mutineers. On their demand the quarantine limitations were deleted by the commands of the general Turchaninov from 4 and June 7. Mutineers had no any program of action, among them the demurs have begun, the number of the fissile participants has decreased. June 7 the revolt was suppressed through gated in in city of a new troops.
For making out of circumstances of business of authority have assigned the commission of inquiry. It has revealed rough arbitrariness and lawlessnesses on the part of the officials "commissions on cancellation of a plague". The commission explained reasons of revolt by curbs on the part of authorities. But as a result of such conclusions there was a conflict between Novorossisk and Bessarabians general - governor Voroncov and admiral Greige. A commission have convicted of excess of power and have dismissed, the protocols have annulled it, and some terms of a commission even have exposed to prosecutions.
The second commission in the head with the graph A. P. Tolstoy exist is short. Its chairman has refused to participate in factfinding because of falsifying its results. But also this commission has managed to ascertain, that from 70 thousand rubles, tempered for rendering assistance requiring, the city has received only 23 thousand. The protocols of the second commission too have vanished. Then the inquest concentrated in arms official near with Voroncov. Reasons of grievance of the inhabitants to clarify not of steel, and simply judged arrested as the rebels. The promisings Greige about pardon everything, except for "of the instigators both assassins", and punishment all guilty of abuses during a quarantine cordon promoted detection of the participants of revolt. Immediately after an entrance to city of 12 division of the general Timofeev, urgently called from Feodosiya by the tavrichesky governor Kaznacheev, the rough handling with the participants of revolt and with all in general by inhabitants settlements and "Spine" began. In inquest have attracted about 6 thousand mans (1/5 part of the city population), and also hundred sailors from miscellaneous crews and companies. From their number 1580 mans were sended to military court. 52 "of the main instigators" are convicted even before the termination of inquest.
Have sentenced to the execution: 29-th naval full crew (73 mans), in 38-m and 39-m naval crews - 217 of 228, in 17-m and 18-m working crews - 357 of 389, civilians - 75, and only 722 mans. As a whole have condemned about 1 thousand the sailors from 14 crews. Hundreds people have run "through create", rip by moulting, have banished in penal servitudes and in prisonering company, including 423 women. Were punished practically everything, and than king has disposed apart: all inhabitants settlements to eject, and settlements to burn up to the basis.
Then government "pited": a seven have executed, each tenth sailor from five crews, sentenced to punishment, have assigned on 3 thousand rodes. A verdict have executed even before the termination of inquest. How many was thus begin to beat to death, it is not known. In Sevastopol from Aleshky was called "hangman Nikitov with instruments ". Execute were committed publicly on August 11, 1830 under the instruction Voroncov simultaneously in three test leadss of city, in regions settlements. It was made for intimidation of the participants of revolt and other city dwellers.
In the late autumn the dispatch convicted on penal servitude and in prisonering of a company (in Siberia, in a stability Dinaburg (Dvinsk) and Bobruisk), and also violent resettlement 4200 inhabitants of Sevastopol (married sailors with the wives and all in general of wives of the sailors with children) in Arkhangelsk and other places began. They should pass on foot per winter months over three thousand versts. Many from the women have run up but environs of Sevastopol, were disguised in forests and caves, died from severe cold and famine. The officers, except for seven, accused in complicity in revolt and in the concealment of the sailors, were convicted for sleeping and dereliction of duty, and general - lieutenant Turchaninov, apart from these charges, as well for cowardice. The court has decided the unlucky general, which one during revolt was the chief of a troops, "to expel from army and to eliminate from a service".
In one month after execution one more commission was created. To this time in city almost did not remain of the participants of events. And the new commission has failed to collect of the testimonies of the injured parties. So the rough handling of imperial government not only with the participants of revolt and condoling mutineers to the sailors of naval and working crews, but also with all inhabitants settlements, both received, and not received involvements in revolt was completed. The Sevastopol revolt of 1830 has put a beginning of a series "of cholera revolts" 1830-1831 years. As well as other protrusions in different garrisons of country, it was by one of bright pages of a history of liberation scrambling in Russia.
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