Back to previous page Sevastopol history : Crimea war 1854-1855 (1st Sevastopol defence)

        Crimean war flared up in 1854 as result of long saved economic and political contradictions between England, France, Turkey and Russia. Each of these countries aspired to strengthen the influence on Near East to win the markets of selling to subordinate to itself new territories. England and France, skilfully using more and more becoming aggravated russian - trkish attitudes, have provoked Turkey on the announcement of war of Russia. However there is no time powerful Ottoman empire to this time is significant weakened and be unable to achieve success: turkish sufferred defeats on land and by the sea. November 18, 1853 Russian squadron under commanding of the vice-admiral P. S. Nakhimov raided in Sinop bay a turkish squadron, and November 19 in area of settlement Bashkadyklar, to the north of a fortress Каре, 10 thousand Russian army under commandig of the general V. O. Bebutov was broken and is inverted in flight 36 thousand turkish army. All this has forced the allies of Turkey England and France to hurry to the aid : in December, 1853 English - French fleet has come in the Black sea. East was begun, or Crimean, war, one of the most bloody wars of the last century. Soon has joined England kingdom, France and Turkey, united front acted against Russia, Sardinia. In relation to Russia the position of Austria, Sweden, USA was hostile also. The war went by the Baltic and White seas, on Danube and Caucasus, even on far Kamchatka. But main theatre of military actions has become Crimea. In the beginning of September, 1854 past Sevastopol has proceeded English - French fleet. Knowing, that the city is well protected from the sea, the opponent has landed large descent to the south from Evpatoria to approach to Sevastopol from a land. September 13, 1854 in city was announced state of siege.
        The defense proceeding 349 days was begun. By its organizers and chiefs of steel the chief of a staff of black sea fleet the vice-admiral V. A. Kornilov and commander by a squadron the vice-admiral P. S. Nahimov. As from a land the city was not укреплен, its the defence counsels had in very short term to construct defensive line consisting from seven bastions. Eighth bastion, later named as Kornilovsky, was on Malakhov barrow - prevailing height of the Ship party. The talented engineer - fortifer E. I. Totleben supervised over construction of strenghtenings. Sevastopol bays in most the beginning of a defense have appeared inaccessible to an enemy: the seamen have decided to flood a part of the courts to complicate break unfriendly fleet on internal road. A barrier from the flooded Russian ships and neat fire of coastal batteries have compelled English - French command to refuse attempts of break in Sevastopol from the sea. More than nine thousands seamen naval crews have joined structure of Sevastopol overland garrison and steel by its main force. Ship guns, shells, the whole property they have transferred on bastions, where at once ascend the throne the faultless naval order. Even time there was measured ship phials. Landed approach Evpatoria - Saki the opponent has put a large defeat Russian forces on the Alma river also has bypassed Sevastopol from east. The Englishmen have taken possession Balaklava and have arranged there fleet, the French have broken Camp in a Cane bay. By organizing, thus, base for supply forces, allies of steel to prepare for storm Sevastopol. October 5, 1854 they have undertaken the first bombardment of city: 126 unfriendly instruments by time have brought down on defensive line fiery squall. The defence counsels of bastions have stood, though and by large losses. By the heaviest loss there was a destruction of the admiral V. A. Kornilov, fatally wounded that day on Malahov barrow. After his destruction in the chapter defenses has risen P. S. Nakhimov. 13 October the defence counsels of Sevastopol in Balaklavskaya battle on a head crash the English kavalry, but October 24 the Russian army has sufferred a defeat under Inkerman. However and the losses of the opponent have appeared so Significant, that English - French command was compelled to proceed to long siege of city. Both parties have begun perfection of the strenghtenings. The rule of the defence counsels of Sevastopol remained heavier: they had on arms basically heavy smooth-bore gun shooting only on 300 steps, and the soldiers of the opponent were are armed rifled with guns shooting on 1200 of steps. Reinforcements and ammunition unfriendly forces in Crimea received faster and in a lot, than Russian, constantly testing a lack of all. In the spring 1855 allied forces made active the actions. On dawn on June 5 fourth was begun powerest, under the account, bombardment of city, and 6 June the opponent has gone on storm of strenghtenings of the Ship party. However Russian troopers, by displaying exclusive courage and heroism, have defended a black sea fortress. The events on June 6, 1855 are embodied on a picturesque cloth of a famous panorama F. F. Rubo " a Defense of Sevastopol 1854-1855 yy. " About three months the defence counsels of city kept, but the forces them thew. Irreplaceable loss has become destruction P. S. Nakhimov: June 28 this talented commander, pet of sailors and the soldier was is fatally wounded... The tightened military actions under Sevastopol exhausted forces of both parties. Despite of heavy rule of the defence counsels, the defense carried active character: the opponent and did not manage to lock besieged in a fortress. Defensive structures broken in the afternoon, for night they restored, on night made sorties to enemy positions, putting the opponent appreciable losses. Russian obviously surpassed the French in the unerground-mine war, imposed by them. Courage and the courage was displayed not only troopers, with sailors and them commanders, but also population of Sevastopol, including wemen and children. 4 August, 1855 Russian forces have sufferred a defeat in battle on Black river, and August 27 fall the Malahov barrow. pontoon-bridge via North bay To keep more ruins of Sevastopol it was not represented possible. In night on August 28 the defence counsels, by blowing up the strenghtenings, under the order commander-in-chief M. D. Gorchakov have left a southern part of city and on the floating bridge induced through road, send on Northern party. Active military actions in Sevastopol are end. 18 of March, 1856 after long diplomatic struggle the Paris peace contract was signed, on which Russia has lost the right to have by the Black sea fleet, to build fortresses and naval bases.